Curtis relative density

Two such measures that have had considerable use in the Pacific Northwest are Reineke stand density index (SDI) (Reineke 1933) and Curtis relative density (RD) (Curtis 1982) Curtis' Relative Density is based on the relationship between tree size and the number of trees per acre or hectare

Curtis' Relative Density: A Measure Useful in Douglas fir

  1. Relative density = RD = G. obs /(Dg. b). (5) In this form, density is on a continuous scale ranging from zero for zero basal area through some biological maximum for the species. There is now only a single parameter (the exponent CURTIS, R. O. 1970. Stand density measures: an interpretation. Forest Sci 16:403-414. CURTIS, R. O. 1971. A tree.
  2. Relative Density (RD) (Curtis 1982) • Combines stand basal area and average tree size, ie., QMD • RD = TBA / (DBHq)0.5 • RD will increase with an increase in TBA (with constant QMD) • RD will increase with a decrease in DBHq for constant TBA • Thus, higher values of RD imply a greater degree of competition 2
  3. 3 Dataset 1 plot parameters measured in the field and estimated Curtis relative density (RDC). Data are from randomly selected plots from four forest types that were shown to be statistically identical in volume and density (Fig. 3), thus the data are pooled. None of the plots within Datase
  4. Metrics such as Curtis' Relative Density (RD) and Reineke's Stand Density Index (SDI) were developed to provide standardized stocking metrics relative to a 'fully stocked' stand, but only with Hall's (1989) growth basal area (GBA) do we get an actual measure of stand vigor relative to site

RTI Fact Sheet #31: Measures for Forest Health in Eastern

  1. ance. The importance value index (IVI) of tree species was deter
  2. Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity for liquids is nearly always measured with respect to water at its densest (at 4 °C or 39.2 °F); for gases, the reference is air at room temperature (20 °C or 68 °F). The term relative density is often preferred in.
  3. ation of solid and liquid. Equal volumes of different substances have different masses or weights. For example 1 m 3 of lead weighs differently from 1 m 3 of wood. Also 1 m 3 of water has a weight different from that of sulphuric acid or palm oil of the same volume. This is due to differences of in the.
  4. Marshall and Curtis 2002. Trends in DIAMETER GROWTH of largest trees on Hoskins LOGS plots In c r e a si n g t hi n ni n g in te n si ty 60% larger than control D40 at Mortality (relative density=0.55) Minimum recommended density to maintain site occupancy (relative density=0.35) Maximum SDI (relative density=1.00) Approximate crow
  5. the HCP for this review was Curtis' relative density (RD, specifically RD 48, Hicks and Stablins 1995), which the HCP defines as an acceptable surrogate for canopy closure and serves as a basis for contract compliance (HCP IV.11).Curtis' RD is a measure of relative density originally developed for even-age
  6. Tree relative density = ƒ (Tree diameter and species) I n d i v i d u a l t r e e r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y. . . i n c e n t a c r s Stout and Nyland 1986. 14 So three groups for Allegheny hardwoods CAPS - bc, wa, & tulip-poplar HM-BE - hm, be, stm, oaks except ro OTHER - all other specie

Tree diversity, stand structure, and community composition

Because applying Reineke's SDI to mixed-species or multiple cohort stands has proved challenging , we adopted Ducey and Knapp's (2010) approach which combines the concept of Curtis's (1971) relative density (CRD) with Dean and Baldwin, 1996, Woodall et al., 2005) and Woodall et al. (2005) use of wood specific gravity (SG) into a relative. Curtis' relative density index, Reineke's stand density index and the crowncompetition factor (LeMay and Marshall, 1990). Rei n-eke (1933) devised a measure of desity by drawing a series of n parallel lines relating the maximum number of trees to the quad-ratic mean stand diameter. According to Avery and Burkhar

The initial densities of the growing-stock control plots were 986, 879, and 709, respectively. Growing-stock levels were quantified in terms of Curtis' relative density ⁠, where G is BA (m 2 /ha) (Curtis 1982). Growing-stock treatments were defined relative to the growth of the unthinned plots Five plots, one unthinned control and four following thinning regimes based on Curtis' relative density constitute the treatments. Originally 12 installations, 60 plots; currently 4 installations, 20 plots 577 REINEKE'S STAND DENSITY INDEX: A QUANTITATIVE AND NON-UNITLESS MEASURE OF STAND DENSITY Curtis L. VanderSchaaf 1 Abstract—When used as a measure of relative density, Reineke's stand density index (SDI) can be made unitless by relating the current SDI to a standard density but when used as a quantitative measure of stand density SDI is not unitless

101 square feet per acre, a quadratic mean diameter (QMD) of 6.1 inches and a stand density index (SDI) of 224. Cut trees averaged exactly 200 per acre, as determined from a post-thinning survey utilizing 1/20-acre fixed-area plots. The post-treatment stand had a basal area of 78 square feet per acre, a QMD of 7.1 An Index of Relative. 40-60,60-80,and 80+ years) and four Curtis relative density ranges (0.01-0.2,0.2-0.5, 0.5-0.8,0.8-1.1).This made it possi­ ble to capture the range of diversity in forest structure. Relative density is defined as the product ofthe square root ofQDBH and 106 WEST. J.Am, FOR.25(3) 201

Relative density - Wikipedi

40-60, 60-80, and 80 years) and four Curtis relative density ranges (0.01-0.2, 0.2-0.5, 0.5-0.8, 0.8-1.1). This made it possi-ble to capture the range of diversity in forest structure. Relative density is defined as the product of the square root of QDBH and BA (Curtis 1970). The location of each plot was predetermine The Curtis-relative density index is an aggregated stand structure index that integrates quadratic mean diameter and stem density. It is a good indicator of canopy retention as it depicts the total occupation of growing space based on tree density and size and can be used for uneven-aged management acre, relative density (Curtis 2010), relative stocking (Teply 2012), bank-full channel width and quadratic mean diameter (Curtis and Marshall 2000). We observed statistically significant (alpha < 0.05) correlations between effective shade and relative density (correlation = 0.624, p-value < (Curtis, 1959). 3.6.1 Relative density Relative density is the study of numerical strength of a species in relation to the total number of individuals of all the species and can be calculated as: Relative density = Number of individual of the species Number of individuals of all the species X 100 3.6.2 Relative frequenc

Density, Relative Density: Definition and Experiment

Methods Of Vegetation: Quantitative : Plantle

Relative density Vapor pressure Vapor density Volatility Odor threshold Evaporation rate Viscosity Solubility Odor Color::::: Flash point : Open cup: 253°C (487.4°F) [Cleveland.] Auto-ignition temperature: Fire Point: 271 °C (519.8°F) Flammable limits : Not available. 9 . Pour point :-42°C (-44°F) The product is stable estimate population density from the distance data collected. Since the current paper is intended as quadrat data. Subsequently, Cottam and Curtis (1956) provided a more detailed comparison of the One use of the point-centered quarter method is to determine the relative importance of the varioustreespeciesinacommunity. Theterm. Relative Density for FIA Plots Because FIA inventories are extensive, covering a wide range of conditions, the committee decided that a relative measure of stand density would be most appropriate. Curtis (1970, 1971) has compared the usual measures of relative density. All use either normal stands or open-grown trees as a point of reference Abstract. An understory of shade-tolerant species often develops in stands in the Douglas-fir region of western Washington and Oregon and can have a disproportionate effect on relative density indices, such as Reineke stand density index and Curtis relative density

The requisite relative density (basal area divided by the square root of quadratic mean diameter, Curtis 1982) for the plots was 55, or less at establishment. This situation necessitated a quadratic mean diameter of 15-25 cm for an initial target stocking rate within a range of 500-1112 stems per hectare DENSITY INDEX Relative Density (Curtis) RD < 35 1 3 2 4 RD 36-60 3 5 3 1 RD > 61 0 1 3 1 2013 - 2015 27 Douglas-fir Sites A ln QMD. Ponderosa Pine Productivity Index - 10 Year Stem Height Segment 10YR < 18' 19' > 10YR < 22' 23' > 10YR < 26' 10YR > 27'. Indexes of stand density were reviewed by Curtis (1970), including stand density index (SDI), number or spacing of trees in relation to height, tree area ratio (TAR), crown competition factor (CCF), and number of trees in relation to volume (relative den- sity, or RD--the density management concept of Drew and Flewelling (1979))

Developing relative stand density index for structurally

Abstract Several commonly used stand density indices, such as Reineke's stand density index, Few and Flewelling's relative density index, and Curtis's relative density index, depend in a nonlinear fashion on stand-level means of measured variables. Thus, the stand-level index value is not necessarily the mean of the plot-level index values. We show formally that this dependency introduces a. stands. Compositional index (Curtis and McIntosh 1951) is the sulIl of tloc products of species importance values (i.e., the average of relative fre-quency, relative density, and relative basal area) and their climax adapta-tion numbers (Curtis and McIntosh 1951; Brown and Curtis, 1952). As il Outputs from the default and calibrated FVS-PN projections are presented in the Supplementary Material for the height of dominant trees, number of trees per acre, basal area, quadratic mean diameter, cubic volume, Scribner boardfoot volume, Stand Density Index, and Curtis Relative Density. A series of yield tables for these metrics using the.

The Importance Value Index of each tree species was calculated as the mean of relative frequency, relative density and relative dominance, all expressed as percentages (Curtis & McIntosh, Reference Curtis and McIntosh 1950). Relative frequency was calculated by dividing the frequency (the number of quadrats with the species present) by the sum. 2-4 Relative density (Curtis 1982) in relation to height of the 40-largest diameter trees (HT4O) by treatment. 37 2-5 Relation of periodic annual gross basal area increment to mid-period growing stock: (A) basal area per acre and (B) relative density (Curtis 1982). Solid lines represent the range of the thinned plot data and th Here, we present an alternative method for rapid assessment of risk that is applicable to Reineke's stand density index, Wilson's relative spacing, Drew and Flewelling's relative density index, and Curtis's relative density

Relative Density Index (Curtis, 1970), were de veloped. supposing very particular stand conditions, like a. homogeneous species composition and a specific age. distribution This report updates data and comparisons from previous reports (Curtis and others 2000, Curtis 2008) on a series of precommercial thinning and yield trials in high-elevation true fir-hemlock stands, using data from the 12 replicates for which 20-year data are now available. The stands were varying mixtures of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis (Douglas ex Loudon) Douglas ex Forbes), western.

(PDF) Microbial Ecology of Methanotrophy in Streams Along

The concepts of versus stocking are critical to understanding silvicultural techniques. A variety of measures and approaches are used, including Reineke's Stand Density Index (SDI) and Curtis' Relative Density (RD). In order to teach these concepts and their applications, trees were modeled as Lego© block, where a 10 dbh tree with SDI of1 is represented as a two peg wide Lego© block The data on tree vegetation were analysed for density, frequency and basal area (Curtis & Mcintosh 1950).The importance value index (IVI) was determined as the sum of relative frequency, relative density and relative basal area (Curtis 1959). Relative frequency, relative density and relative basal area were determined fol lowing Phillips (1959) Other metrics, such as Reineke's Stand Density Index (SDI) and related metrics such as those of Curtis and Long and Daniel , offer improvements over basal area for monospecific stands . Reineke's The relative density of forests in the United States, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 226, no. 1-3, pp. 368-372, 2006. View.

The principal component analysis (PCA) of the vegetation

Abstract. To establish a thinning strategy for maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait) basal area, Wilson relative spacing index (WILSON, 1946), Reineke spacing density index (REINEKE, 1933) and Curtis relative density (CURTIS, 1982) are compared Lin H-L, Lin C-C, Lin Y-J, Lin H-C, Shih C-M, Chen C-R, Huang R-N, Kuo T-C: Revisiting with a relative-density calibration approach the determination of growth rates of microorganisms by use of optical density data from liquid cultures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010, 76: 1683-5. 10.1128/AEM.00824-09. Article Google Schola Relative density is calculated by dividing the density by the sum of the densities of all species, multiplied by 100 (to obtain a percentage). Curtis, J.T. & McIntosh, R. P. (1951) An Upland Forest Continuum in the Prairie-Forest Border Region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32: 476-496 The decision to select upper limits of 30 and 50% relative density for low-and high-density management zones was supported by simulation studies (Berrill and O'Hara 2009), indicating that these. In most petroleum engineering applications, the range of re- duced pressure is from 0.02 to 30 for gases and 0.03 to 40 for oils; reduced temperature ranges from 1 to 2.5 for gases and from 0.4 to 1.1 for oils. Reduced density can vary from 0 at low pressures to about 3.5 at high pressures

Curtis and McIntosh (1950) and Misra (1969). IVI = Relative Density + Relative Frequency + Relative Basal area 3. Results 3.1 Floristic composition of vegetation and phytosociological analysis The floristic composition of Daksum range at three altitudes viz Arishan, Harkani and Deesu gives the detaile relative density assessment techniques for use at strategic scales inclusive of all tree species and size combinations. 1.2. Stand density index in even-aged stands Stand density index (SDI) has been used in past strategic-scale fire hazard assessments for determining relative stand density (Vissage and Miles, 2003; USDA Forest Service, 2005) IFTNC Site Type Initiative Paired Plot Density Management (PPDM) Trials. IFTNC Annual Meeting 4/07/1

LEAF AREA INDEX - RELATIVE DENSITY RELATIONSHIPS IN EVEN- AGED ABIES BALSAMEA - PICEA RUBENS STANDS IN MAINE By Robert Justin DeRose Thesis Advisor: Dr. Robert S. Seymour An Abstract of the Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for th The relative density of a species was used to estimate the percentage dry weight of that species in the mixture. Regression equations that express age can be converted to density (Curtis and McIntosh, 1950). The plant frag- ments must be distributed randomly over the slide, and the density of par-. Relative peak height was calculated in a similar manner. Pairwise similarity matrices were calculated using the Dice equation for presence/absence data (SPSS v11.0) and the Bray-Curtis equation for relative peak height and relative density (Primer v5.0) density-frequency-dominance (DFD measure) A combined abundance estimate used in the early N. American ordination schemes but now rarely used.Usually expressed as relative values, relative density is the number of a given species expressed as a percentage of all species present, relative frequency is the frequency of a given species expressed as a percentage of the sum of frequency values for. frequency (A/F) ratio. Similarly relative values of frequency, density and dominance and Importance Value Index (IVI) were computed following the methods of Curtis (1959) as: Percent frequency of species Relative frequency = x100 Total percent frequency of community Density of specie

Measured and calculated swelling volume as a function ofA short path-length optical density flow cell for

Importance values for trees were calculated as relative density + relative basal area + relative frequency/3 (Curtis and McIntosh 1951). Importance values for woody plant seedlings were calculated as (relative density + relative frequency)/2. Small trees (stems > 2.5 cm but < 10 cm dbh) and saplings (stems < 2.5 cm dbh and > 1.0 m in height. 3. to examine whether density-dependent mortality in red alder stands starts at a con- stant relative density regardless of initial density; 4. to compare size-density relationships for red alder in natural stands and in plantations; and 5. to compare size-density rehtionships for red alder and Douglas-fir stands Ken Curtis has appeared in the television program In the Heat of the Night with an actor that was a regular on All in the Family and had done a guest role on Gunsmoke. Name that actor. Name that actor (relative frequency + relative density + relative dominance) while the importance values for herb, shrub and sapling meas- urements will sum to 200 percent (relative frequency -+ relative density). Whitford and Salamun (1954) have suggested that sap- ling data may be made directly comparable to tree data by mul

Direct Measure of Stand Density Based on Stand Growth

the sum of the relative density, relative frequency and relative dominance (Curtis; 1959). The ratio of abundance to frequency for different species was determined for eliciting the distribution patterns (Curtis and Cottom, 1956). The tree species diversity was determined by using Shannon-Wiener information function (H') (Shannon and Wiener, 1963) floor (Curtis, 1959). Even though maples are highly flammable, the closed canopy of trees in a southern mesic forest keeps the forest humid enough to deter forest fires (Curtis, 1959). Sixth, to find the relative density, take the number of individuals of a species an 129 to 140 years. _ 1827-1829 map of the area (1959) and Curtis and Mclntosh (1951). Relative also shows a road passing through the middle of density was computed as the number of trees of the forest, and a sawmill on a stream within ]../2 any species relative to the total number of trees mile of the study area. After the presumed in any sample The target density for the project was 96.3 percent, and had a percent within limits (PWL) specification of 90 percent. The PWL looks at not only the average, but the standard deviation. Granite Construction had a goal to get the bonus 100 percent of the time by hitting a PWL of at least 96 percent - 6 percent above the PWL specification set. The density, understood as the number of individuals of each species and of all other species occurring per unit area in the studied forest population, reported in absolute quantities as absolute density (D abs), according to Curtis and McIntosh (1950), and in relative form as relative density (D rel), is obtained by effective counts o

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the sum of the relative frequency, relative density and rela-tive dominance (Curtis 1959). The ratio of abundance to frequency was used to interpret the distribution pattern of the species (Whitford 1949). The ratio of abundance to frequency indicates regular distribution if below 0.025, random distribution between 0.025 and 0.05 and conta. density, frequency, and dominance, which were then relativized (Curtis and Mclntosh, 1951; Lindsey, 1956). Data for each species were summarized by woodlot and stratum according to an artificial importance value, which is the mean of the sum of the relative density, relative frequency, and relative dominance Cottam and Curtis (1956) obtained excellent density estimations with these distance sampling techniques in three different forests ranging in actual density from it! g 350 \ 5 2 300 > k- z relative density in the population. Live oak, the overwhelming dominant, was the only species recorded with as many as 30 hits..

Relating Forest Attributes with Area-and Tree-Based Light

corresponded to the RMS contrasts of the four relative density levels of 0.02, 0.09, 0.37, and 1.49. Together with the original relative surround30 density condition (i.e., 0% Michelson contrast) and 36 density condition (which has 88.5% Michelson contrast as with all the other main conditions), there were six levels of Michelson contrast in total distribution. The relative frequency, relative density, and relative basal area were determined according to Phillips (1959). Important value index (IVI) for the various species represents the sum of relative frequency, relative basal area and relative density (Curtis and McIntosh, 1951). Species diversity was calculated usin of relative frequency, relative density, and relative dominance. Diversity indices were computed using the formulas by Curtis and McIntosh (1950), Magurran (1988), and Kindt and Coe (2005). Species diversity (H') was calculated using the Shannon-Weiner index (Shannon and Weiner 1963) and R Studio (2013) for diversity profile. Species importanc p=relative density. are successively higher, lower, and higher than the ex- pected random values, the species is contagious. The models in Table I demonstrate these relationships. At a density of 25%, for example, the pattern of regular values of 0, 100, 0, 0, 0 in relation to the random patter

Schematic diagram of femtosecond laser processing system

The relative density of the youngest plerocercoids of D. dendriticum ( < 4 mm) , decreased significantly ( p < 0.05) in medium-sized charr from JanuaryJFebruary to MarchJApril and MayJJune. The prevalences of small D. dendriticum were nearly unchanged, and the mean length of all plerocercoid samples increased from autumn to spring stand densities (Sjolte-Jorgensen 1967, Smith et al. 1997, Marshall and Curtis 2002, Tappeiner et al. 2007) there is still some uncertainty over how long-term yield, defined here as the total cubic stem volume per unit ground area, responds to early density management (Oliver and Larson, 1996). Stand yield is the sum of the individual trees i FS-Curtis 1905 Kienlen Ave. - St. Louis, MO 63133 314-383-1300 Ext. 237 314-383-1300 Ext. 237 2015-05-28 Density @ 20 DEG C 0.84-0.87 Relative Density Not determined Vapor Density Not determined Evaporation Rate Not determine

Flower Density Is More Important Than Habitat Type for

Lower-hybrid cavities are wave-filled, cylindrical density cavities aligned with the geomagnetic field. They have relative density depletions of several to tens of percent, diameters of order 20-50 m, and are associated with ion heating transverse to the geomagnetic field. Several aspects of these structures remain unexplained, including the cause of the density depletion and the reason for. a relative density greater than 0.70. Plots with a relative den-sity greater than 0.70 are represent by the' 'symbols, while plots with a relative density less than 0.70 and an observed density greater than the minimum density of full site occupan-cy (N MCA) are denoted by the ' ' symbol. The dotted line ser Frequency, density and basal area for each species were calculated as per Curtis Mc. Intosh (1950), where as relative values were calculated as per Curtis (1959). Other information related to agroforestry tree and their uses was also collected from the local in habitants of th

Forests Free Full-Text Regeneration Responses to

~Relative importance values were calculated as the·sum of relative -- frequency, relative density, and re.lative dominance of the species in - the stand (.Curtis and ~1c!ntosh 1951) divided by three Benzoyl chloride appears as a colorless fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Flash point 162°F. Lachrymator, irritating to skin and eyes. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Density 10.2 lb / gal. Used in medicine and in the manufacture of other chemicals The importance of IVI was first pointed out by Curtis and Mcintosh (1951). The IVI, as pointed out earlier, gives complete picture of sociological character of a species in the community but it does not give the dimension of relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency The final relative density, D f, was obtained using a theoretical density of 3.976 g/cm 3 for α-alumina. In the same time, the average grain size is measured from SEM pictures taken from a fracture surface, using a line-intercept method taking into account at least 300 grains (with a three-dimensional correction factor determined to be 1.2) Summary statistics were estimated for stand attributes including trees per acre, quadratic mean diameter, basal area per acre, volume, Curtis ' relative density, and mean over story tree height. Mean live conifer basal area per acre (LCBAPA) was estimated by map site class (SC) for site classes II, III, IV and V and compared with the DFC.

International Journal of Ecology and Environmental

In general, relative density expresses the numerical strength of a target species in relation to the total number of individuals of all the species occurred. The one-complement of this coefficient is the popular Bray-Curtis dissimilarity measure (Bray and Curtis, 1957) seedlings. Community quantitative parameters such as frequency, density, abundance, basal area (BA), relative frequency, relative density, relative dominance and Importance Value Index (IVI) were calculated (Cottam & Curtis 1956). The Shannon-Wiener index (H′) (Shannon & Weaver 1963), Simpson‟s index (C D) (Simpso For each species, the importance value (IV) (Curtis and McIntosh 1951) of each species was calculated as follows: To compute for the relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency, the following formula was used (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974): density values and the expected share of corresponding co. specie for the trees and saplings, including (1) relative dominance (trees only), (2) relative frequency, (3) relative density, and (4) importance values foreachtreespecies.Relativedominanceiscal-culated as the total basal area for each species divided by the cumulative basal area for all spe-cies, and multiplied by 100 (Cottam and Curtis 1956) = 0.05. A Bray-Curtis coefficient of similarity (Bray and Curtis 1957) was calculated to determine the similarity between the relative densities of adults and the rel- ative densities of understory individuals. Finally, the sums of the absolute densities of all tree species were plotted by size class

Effect of diameter limits and stand structure on relative

RELATIVE DENSITY Maximum Size-Density Relationship Ln volume = 12.644 - 1.5 ln TPA • Defined by Drew and Flewelling in 1979 • Developed First for Douglas fir Ln volume 1.5 ln TPA Developed First for Douglas - • Relates Trees Per Acre and Tree Volum Relative density: 0.785 - 0.787 @ 20 °C (68 °F) / Reference substance: (water = 1) Solubility(ies) Water solubility: completely miscible Solubility in other solvents: No data availabl calculated by summing the relative density, relative diversity, and relative dominance (Scott et al., 1983). FIV = Relative density + Relative diversity + Relative dominance Where, The similarity index was calculated to compare the similarity between two sacred groves by using Sorensen's index of similarity (Sorensen 1948) Trees per acre, Basal Area per acre, Stand Density Index (SDI), Relative Density Index (Curtis, 1982) and Crown Competition Factor (CCF) are all stand-based density indices2. Competitive Stress Index (CSI) is a tree-based density index. A tree-based density index may be compute

Results after two years of injection of CO 2 into aLocal landscapes and microhabitat characteristics are(PDF) Structure of cryptic reef fish assemblages

The term was first used by Curtis and McIntosh (1951) to denote the sum of relative frequency, relative density, and relative dominance of a tree species. In determining the prominence value the number of individuals of a species in a stand is the most important figure, while the frequency, a measure of th Community Properties Reading assignment: Chapter 9 in GSF Different views of plant communities Clements' super-organism concept all species are mutually interdependent these relationships benefited the whole community focused on biotic factors, but acknowledged abiotic factors controlling community development highly predictable trajectory and end points emergent properties Different. (Curtis and Mcintosh, 1950, 1951). These parameters are defined as: Relative freqltency =number of occurrences of one species as a percentage of the total num­ ber of occurrences of all species. Relative density = number of individuals of one species as a percentage of the total number of individuals of all species. Relative weight = total wet. A relative density index is presented as a basis for quantifying tree growth and stand yield as a function of density. The trade-off between maximizing individual tree and other indices are discussed by Curtis (1970), who regards them as having approximately equal utility. One drawback to many of these indices is that the Density (trees/ha)* Age Diameter Height Basal area Relative Site <50 cm >50 cm (years) (cm) (m)† (m2/ha) density‡ Old stands 1 18 62 71-137 26-207 73 51 Can. J. For. Res. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Huazhong University of Science and Technology on 06/06/13 2 18 59 63-145 33-193 66 45 3 10 59 90-226 35-173 68 52 4. The density of all species 50-200 cm in height increased over time in the exclosure (Fig. 4, significant exclosure by time interaction). For individual species, we limited our repeated measure analyses tothefourspecies inthissizeclassthatoccurred inatleastfour Fig. 1. Relative importance values of canopy and understory species based o

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